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    [Ngữ Pháp] Passive voice _ Câu bị động

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      #1

       on Sun Aug 30, 2015 1:46 pm


      PASSIVE VOICE - CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG

      I.                  Active and passive sentences.


      Form:
      S + to be + Past Participle (+ by + agent) 
      Notes:
      1. Cách chuyển sang câu bị động

      Lấy tân ngữ (object) của câu chủ động làm chủ ngữ của của câu bị động
      Đổi động từ chủ động thành động từ bị động (be + past participle)
      Chủ ngữ của câu chủ động thành tác nhân (agent) của câu bị động và trước nó phải có giới từ by
      Chủ ngữ I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they, one, people, someone, somebody trong câu thường được bỏ, không dùng trong câu bị động
      2.    Câu bị động với các thì.
      Table:


      Tense
      Active structure
      Passive structure
      Hiện tại đơn
      S + V(s/ es/ bare)
      People speak English here
      S + am/ is/ are + pp
      English is spoken here
      Hiện tại tiếp diễn
      S + am/ is/ are + V_ing
      They are building a new house
      S + am/ is/ are + being + pp
      A new house is being built
      Hiện tại hoàn thành
      S + have/ has+ pp
      We have cleaned our car
      S + have/ has + been pp
      Our car has been cleaned.
      Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn
      S + have/ has been V_ing
      I have been writing this letter for 2 hours
      S + have/ has + been being pp
      This letter has been being written for two hours  
      Quá khứ đơn
      S + V ed/ V2Some one cleaned the room yesterday
      S + was/ were + pp
      The room was cleaned yesterday  
      Quá khứ tiếp diễn
      S + was/ were + V_ing
      They were making a cake when I arrived
      S + was/ were + being pp
      A cake was being made when I arrived.
      Quá khứ hoàn thành
      S + had pp
      They had sold all cars when I came  
      S + had been pp
      All car had been sold when I came.
      Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
      S had been V_ing
      By last month we had been building the house for 3 weeks
      S had been being pp
      By last month the house had been being built for three weeks.  
      Tương lai đơn
      S + will + V_ infinitive
      The government will pass the new law next month
      S + will be pp
      The new law will be passed by the government next month
      Tương lai tiếp diễn
      S + will be V_ing
      She will be singing a song when the prime minister comes in
      S + will be being pp
      A song will be being sung when the prime minister comes in.
      Tương lai hoàn thành
      S + will have pp
      By next month I will have written three novels
      S + will have been pp
      By next month three novels will have been written by me.
      Tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn
      I will have been V_ing
      By next month we will have been building the house for three months.
      S will have been being pp
      By next month the house will have been being built for three months.
      Be going to
      S + be going to + V_ infinitive
      They are going to build a new school here
      S + be going to + be pp
      A new school is going to be built here
      Modal verbs
      S + modal verb + V_infinitive
      The manager must sign the cheque
      S + model verb + be pp
      The cheque must be signed by the manager.

      3.    Các nội động từ không có dạng bị động.
      4.    By or with
      –Nếu người, vật trực tiếp gây ra hành động ta dùng by
      –Để chỉ đồ vật, công cụ, nguyên liệu được sử dụng ta dùng With thay cho By
           Eg:  The bird was shot by the hunter.
                    The bird was shot with a gun.
                    The room was filled with smoke.
      5.    Không có dạng bị động của: fit, suit, have, die, lack, resemble, look, like,....
      6.    Vị trí của trạng từ hoặc cụm trạng từ.
      - Trạng từ chỉ cách thức thường đứng giữa to be và PII.
                Eg: The problem has been carefully studied by the scientists.
      -  Trạng từ hoặc cụm trạng từ đứng trước agent.

               Eg: He was found in the forest by the police.
      - Trạng từ hoặc cụm trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng sau by+ agent.
               Eg: The report was typed by the secretary this morning.
      - Các trạng từ khác thường đứng sau trợ động từ đầu tiên
               Eg: She had never been promoted if she wouldn’t have changed her job
      7.    To get + P2: get washed/ dressed/ prepared/ lost/ married/ divorced… (Chủ ngữ tự làm lấy việc gì hoặc tình huống đang gặp phải.)
      8.    Made of – Made from – Made out of.
      Made of: Được làm bằng (chất liệu): Nguyên liệu không bị biến đổi khỏi trạng thái ban đầu sau khi làm ra vật
               The table is made of wood.
      Made from: Nguyên liệu bị biến đổi khỏi trạng thái ban đầu.
               Paper is made from wood.
      Made out of: quá trình.
               This cake was made out of floor, milk, egg and sugar.

      II.              Special cases.


      1.    Verbs with two object.


      Allow, award, ask, buy, give, sell, send, show, pay, promise, tell, offer, teach, refuse, write…

      Subject
      Verb
      Object 1
      Object 2
      Active
      He
      gave
      the polite
      the information.
      Passive
      The polite
      was given
      the information
      by him.
      Passive
      The information
      was given
      to the polite
      by him.

      2.    Verb + Object + To Infinitive.


      Like, Hate, Love, Want, Wish, Prefer, Hope,… + O + V
      Passive form:
      S + V + O + to be + Past Participle.

       He wants somebody to take some photographs.
      He wants some photographs to be taken.
      She expects them to finish all the questions.
      She expects all the questions to be finished.
      Note: Nếu tân ngữ của động từ nguyên mẫu cùng chỉ một đối tượng với chủ ngữ của câu thì dạng động từ được thành lập không có tân ngữ.
      S + V + to be + Past Participle.

      He likes people to call him ‘Sir’ 
      He likes to be called ‘Sir’
       I prefer you to call me by my first name 
      I prefer to be called by my first name.
      Ask, Tell, Request, Order, Advice, Invite, Allow +  O + V


      S + Passive verb + to V        
      She invited us to come to her party.
      We were invited to come to her party.
      The boss doesn’t allow her to use to the phone. 
      She isn’t allowed to use the phone.


      3.    Verb + Object + V (bare)


      Fell, See, Watch, Notice, Hear, Listen to + O + V (bare)            

      S + passive verb + to V
       
      We saw them go out of the house.
      They were seen to go out of the house.
      I heard him run upstairs.
      He was heard to run upstairs.
      Make, Help
                                  I was made to write an essay.
      Let
                                  I was let go out. (I was allowed to go out)

      4.    Verb + Object + Gerund.




      S+ passive verb + Ving

      He kept me waiting.
      I was kept waiting.
      The guard stopped me entering the room.
      I was stopped entering the room by the guard.
      He doesn’t like people laughing at him.
      He doesn’t like being laughed at.
      I remember someone giving me a toy drum on my birthday.
      I remember being given a toy drum on my birthday.


      5.    Verb + To Verb/ Gerund + Object


      Advise, Agree, Insist, Arrange, Suggest, Propose, Recommend, Determine, Decide, Demand, Beg… + To Verb/ Gerund + O
      Passive voice:

      S+ V + that + S + should be done
      He suggested selling the shop.                          
      He suggested the shop should be sold.
      He decided to take the children to the zoo.                        
      He decided that the children should be taken to the zoo.


      6.    Verb + Object + Object Compliment.


      We elected Mr. John president.
      Mr. John was elected president.
      We believed him innocent.
      He was believed innocent.


      7.    Verb + That + Clause.


      Agree, Allege, Announce, Assume, Hope, Believe, Claim, Consider, Estimate, Expect, Fell, Find, Know, Report, Rumor, Say, Think, Understand,….
      S + passive verb + to V
      It + passive verb + that ….
       
      Note:

      • Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề phụ xảy ra đồng thời, hoặc sau thời điểm xảy ra hành động trong mệnh đề chính -> sử dụng to-infinitive

      People say that he is a good doctor.
      It is said that he is a good doctor
      He is said to be a good doctor.


      • Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề phụ xảy ra trước hành động trong mệnh đề chính -> sử dụng to have PP

      We know that he was a spy.
      It is known that he was a spy
      He is known to have been a spy.


      • People say that he is earning a lot of money.

      It is said that he is earning a lot of money.
      He is said to be earning a lot of money.


      8.    Imperative sentences.



      Let + O + be + PII.
       
      Write your name here.
      Let your name be written here.
      Don’t make so much noise.
      Let not so much noise be made
      Don’t let so much noise be made.

      9.    The causative clause.

      Active
      S + have + Object (person) + do something
      S + get + Object (person) + to do something
      Passive
       

      S + have + O (thing) + PP + by O
      S + get + O (thing) + PP + by O
      You should have your car serviced regularly.
      I’ll will have to get another key made.


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      #2

       on Sun Aug 30, 2015 1:54 pm


      Examples of Active and Passive Voice

      Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)
      At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)

      Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
      The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)

      Sue changed the flat tire. (active)
      The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)

      We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)
      A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)

      I ran the obstacle course in record time. (active)
      The obstacle course was run by me in record time. (passive)

      The crew paved the entire stretch of highway. (active)
      The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew. (passive)

      Mom read the novel in one day. (active)
      The novel was read by Mom in one day. (passive)

      The critic wrote a scathing review. (active)
      A scathing review was written by the critic. (passive)

      I will clean the house every Saturday. (active)
      The house will be cleaned by me every Saturday. (passive)

      The staff is required to watch a safety video every year. (active)
      A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive)

      She faxed her application for a new job. (active)
      The application for a new job was faxed by her. (passive)

      Tom painted the entire house. (active)
      The entire house was painted by Tom. (passive)

      The teacher always answers the students’ questions. (active)
      The students’ questions are always answered by the teacher. (passive)

      The choir really enjoys that piece. (active)
      That piece is really enjoyed by the choir. (passive)

      Who taught you to ski? (active)
      By whom were you taught to ski? (passive)

      The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb. (active)
      The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire. (passive)

      The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)
      The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)

      The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night. (active)
      Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew. (passive)

      Larry generously donated money to the homeless shelter. (active)
      Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Larry. (passive)

      No one responded to my sales ad. (active)
      My sales ad was not responded to by anyone. (passive)
       
      The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)
      All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)

      Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)
      For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)

      The science class viewed the comet. (active)
      The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)

      Who ate the last cookie? (active)
      The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)

      Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)
      The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)

      The director will give you instructions. (active)
      Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)

      Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year. (active)
      The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. (passive)

      The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell. (active)
      The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell. (passive)

      The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)
      The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)

      The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams. (active)
      The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater. (passive)

      The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)
      The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)

      Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii. (active)
      Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)

      These different sentences written in both active voice and passive voice illustrate the differences.


      Do you have a good example to share? Add your example here.


      Nguồn: yourdictionary